Economics for production of Oyster mushroom in Tonnes per annum (TPA)
production range for economics
3.5 to 4 TPA
7 to 7.5 TPA
95 to 100 TPA
Economics of Oyster Mushroom Cultivation
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus
spp.), commonly known as “Dhingri” in India, is a lignocellulose loving
fungus growing in nature on living or dead tree trunks/stumps or bark. They are
easily recognized in nature due to their peculiar morphology with an eccentric
short stem or stipe. Cultivation technology of oyster mushroom is very simple
which does not require costly infrastructure facilities. The cultivation of
oyster mushroom in India is mainly done in seasonal low cost growing rooms with
very less expenditure on infrastructure. One can hardly find a big oyster
mushroom growing unit in India having round the year production. There is no
organized market where one can sell his produce or purchase fresh or dry oyster
mushroom throughout the year. Therefore, the production of oyster mushroom on a
commercial scale is rare in our country as compared to Agaricus bisporus (button
mushroom). Theoretically each crop takes 45 days and under controlled conditions
and hence there can be 8 crops per year.
The oyster mushroom is one
of the most suitable fungal organism for producing protein rich food from
various agrowastes without composting. This mushroom is cultivated in about 25
countries of far-east Asia, Europe and America. It is the 3rd largestcultivated
mushroom in the world. China alone contributes 88% of the total world
production. The other major oyster producing countries are South Korea, Japan,
Italy, Taiwan, Thailand and Philippines. At present India produces annually
10,000 tons of this mushroom. It is popularly grown in the states of Orissa,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and in the
North-Eastern States of Meghalaya, Tripura Manipur, Mizoram and Assam.
plan for an Oyster Mushroom Production unit
A low cost oyster mushroom
of Growing Oyster Mushroom
1. Variety of
mushroom can degrade and grow on any kind of agricultural or forest wastes,
which contain lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose.
2. Choice of species
Among all the
cultivated mushrooms Pleurotus has maximum number of commercially cultivated
species suitable for round the year cultivation. Moreover, variation in shape,
colour, texture, and aroma are also available as per consumer’s choice.
mycelium can grow on fresh or fermented straw and it does not require composted
substrate for growth. Substrate preparation for oyster mushroom is very simple.
Further this mushroom does not require controlled environmental conditions like
A. bisporus as most of the species have very wide temperature, relatively
humidity and CO2 tolerance.
4. Longer shelf life
white button mushroom, the oyster mushroom fruit bodies can be easily dried and
stored. Dried oyster mushrooms can be instantly used after soaking in hot water
for 5 to 10 minutes or it can be used in powdered form for several preparations.
Fresh mushrooms have a shelf life of 24-48 h even at room temperature.
productivity of oyster mushroom per unit time is very high as compared to all
other cultivated mushrooms. One can harvest minimum of about 500 to 700 kg of
fresh oyster mushroom from one ton of dry wheat or paddy straw in 45-60 days,
while with the same quantity of straw only about 400-500 kg of white button
mushrooms are obtained in 80-100 days (including period needed for compost
preparation). Yield of this mushroom can further be increased by supplementing
the substrate with suitable nitrogen source viz., soybean and cottonseed meal or
by introducing high yielding cultures/strains. The present day cultivation
technology of oyster mushroom is a result of various successive steps evolved
throughout the world during 20th century. A very primitive form of growing
Pleurotus spp. was adopted by Lumberman in Europe during 19th century that
involved collection of wood logs and stumps showing fructification in nature and
keeping them in cool and moist places. First successful experimental cultivation
of Pleurotus ostreatus was achieved in Germany by Falck in 1917. In India
cultivation of P. flabellatus on paddy straw was reported by Bano &
Srivastava in 1962 at CFTRI, Mysore. Kaul and Janardhanan (1970) cultivated a
white form of P. ostreatus on dried Euphorbia royleana (Thor) stems. Jandaik and
Kapoor in 1974 could grow P. sajor-caju on various substrates including wheat
and banana pseudostems.
B. The Biology
of Oyster Mushroom
basidiocarps or fruit bodies of an oyster mushroom have three distinct parts - a
fleshy shell or spatula shaped cap (pileus), a short or long lateral or central
stalk called stipe and long ridges and furrows underneath the pileus, called
gills or lamellae. The gills stretch from the edge of the cap down to the stalk
and bear the spores. If a fruit body is kept on a paper directly (gills facing
the paper) a dirty white or lilac deposition of powdery spores can be seen. The
spore print colour may be whitish, pinkish, lilac or grey The spores are
hyaline, smooth and cylindrical. The spores are heterothallic and germinate very
easily on any kind of mycological media and within 48-96 h whitish thread like
colonies could be seen. The mycelium of most Pleurotus spp. is pure white in
colour. P. cystidiosus and P. columbinus forms coremia like stalked structures
(asexual spores). Basidiospores on germination forms primary mycelium. Fusion
between two compatible primary mycelia develops into secondary mycelium, which
is having clamp connections and is fertile. Primary mycelium is clampless and
C. Varieties of
the varieties or species of oyster mushroom are edible except P. olearius and P.
nidiformis, which are reported to be poisonous. There are 38 species of the
genus recorded throughout the world (Singer). In recent years 25 species are
commercially cultivated in different parts of the world, which are as follows: P
ostreatus, P. flabellatus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P.
cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. fossulatus, P. opuntiae, P. cornucopiae, P.
yuccae, P. platypus, P. djamor, P tuber-regium, P. australis, P.
purpureo-olivaceus, P. populinus, P. levis, P columbinus, P. membranaceus etc.
types of cultivated Pleurotus species
3.5 to 4 TPA
oyster mushroom cultivation by chemical sterilization technique
A. Economics of Oyster Mushroom
Cultivation in Polyhouse (3.5 to 4 TPA)
7 to 7.5 TPA
B. Economics of Oyster
Mushroom Cultivation in Mud House (7 to 7.5 TPA)
95 to 100 TPA
C. Economics of Oyster
Mushroom Unit (95 to 100 TPA)
1. (a) Total
Total land required for the project would be
around 1 acre.
* If the produce is sun dried/solar
dehydrated this expenditure can be saved and thus giving extra income.